A comprehensive answer to what is 3D printingA comprehensive answer to what is 3D printing

the status of 3D printing technology, and the future of 3D printing

In the past year or so, the 3D printing industry has entered a highly active period. News and concepts related to 3D printing have frequently appeared in the public eye. More and more Chinese people are beginning to understand 3D printing. In fact, the application of 3D printing technology and 3D printers in some developed countries in Europe and America has become quite common.

In September 2008, I first saw and used a 3D printer when I was studying in the laboratory of Professor Hudi Lipson of Cornell University in New York. It was a magic machine similar to the shape of a domestic refrigerator. It only took two hours to turn a three-dimensional model in the computer into a real part in my hand. I can imagine the surprise and sigh at that time. At that time, Professor Lipson and his students were already making various robotic parts using expensive industrial-grade 3D printers in the laboratory, although the materials used for 3D printers were not cheap. At the same time, Professor Lipson’s team’s open-source desktop 3D printer Fab @ Home, biomaterial 3D printer, and multi-material hybrid 3D printing have also achieved fruitful results.

My mentor, Professor Lipson, is humorous and often discusses some very creative new ideas with you. His main research fields include evolutionary computing, 3D printing, and robotics. His fame is an innovative research project on intelligent robots using 3D printers to self-manufacture. The results of the article were finally published in 2000. In the journal Nature. It is based on years of dedication and love in the field of 3D printing that Professor Lipson has been looking forward to publishing a book that comprehensively introduces 3D printing and related technologies. It is very gratifying that the new book 3D Printing: From Imagination to Reality, co-authored by Professor Lipson and Ms. Cuman, was finally completed in early 2013 and published by Wiley Press. In the email communication with Professor Lipson, I learned that the Chinese version of the book will be published by CITIC Press. This is a very good thing for the majority of Chinese readers and friends who are concerned about 3D printing technology.

I am very honored to receive the English manuscript donated by Wiley Publishing House and the Chinese translation shared by the editor-in-chief of Jiang Yongjun of CITIC Publishing House. This is the world’s first comprehensive book on 3D printing technology and its applications. The book shows the research results of 3D printing technology and its industrial development by Professor Lipson and Ms. Cuman. Different opinions and cases from many people in industry, academia, and education related to 3D printing, and the author’s unique analysis and bold predictions of 3D printing technology itself have been added.
The author describes the technical principles, history and current status, wide application, future prospects, difficulties and challenges of 3D printing for readers from different levels and perspectives. For Chinese readers, there is a comprehensive understanding of what this book covers:

1.3D printing has spread to every corner of everyday life

More and more facts show that 3D printers are no longer exclusive machines for designers and scientists. It has gradually come out of laboratories and factories, and entered schools and homes, which are closely related to the lives of each of us. 3D printed clothes and shoes have appeared in major fashion shows all over the world. 3D printed biscuits and cakes have become some of the most popular snacks on the family table. 3D printed coffee tables and personalized furniture are popular with young people. 3D printing elements are increasingly being reflected in the design of vehicles such as bicycles and cars. From children’s “pleasant sheep” toothbrushes and custom toys, to stereoscopic wedding photos of parents, to hearing aids and dentures for grandparents, 3D printing surprises and benefits everyone in the family. As depicted in the book, 3D printing technology is following a three-step development route, gradually transitioning from the shape of the printed object to the internal composition of the printed object, and finally to the stage where the advanced functions and behaviors of the printed object can be developed. Therefore, we believe that: In the not-too-distant future, everyone will be able to print callable phones, mini-robots crawling around, and other novel and fun electronics at home.

2.3D printing will affect all industries

The new manufacturing method of 3D printing will make a huge change in your working style, which may become more efficient or more difficult. The author lists many representative cases in the book in response to this trend. If you are a middle school teacher, when you come to the classroom with dinosaur fossils or Himalayan models that have been spent hours making 3D prints, this class will surely impress your students; if you are a senior medical practitioner When you bring a bone or heart valve made with a 3D printer that perfectly matches the patient ’s body into the operating room, the entire medical community must be excited; if you are an archeologist, use 3D scanning and 3D printing Technology can quickly copy those fragile and untouchable precious cultural relics, so the tedious and detailed archeological research work will surely do more with less. If you are an art designer and use 3D printing technology to achieve your design, then those wonderful and complicated in nature The curves and shapes are no longer out of reach, and people’s aesthetic standards will be greatly improved. However, if you are a master of three-dimensional sculpting, then the 3D printed works will make you feel worse; if you own a model making factory, 3D printing technology is likely to shrink your business volume greatly. Like this, 3D printing will certainly affect and affect the working models of various industries, or enhance the vitality of many industries, or cause some industries to die.

3.3D printing creates many new opportunities but also brings many new challenges

As mentioned above, some traditional industries will gradually shrink due to the impact of 3D printing technology. However, we must realize that 3D printing will also generate a large number of unprecedented industries and huge opportunities. The most obvious opportunity is that as the demand for cheap home 3D printers grows, its related industry chain (including parts manufacturing, printing materials and other industries) will also enter a period of rapid development. More important opportunities In the Internet field, there will be more and more e-commerce models around 3D printing, such as online 3D printing services, personal custom design and manufacturing services, shared 3D printing model communities, and 3D printing networks for cloud manufacturing. Similar to the Internet, as predicted in the book, the popularity of mobile information platforms and smart phones also provides an ideal application promotion platform for some easy-to-use but very interesting 3D printing value-added services. Another is that the physical business model based on 3D printing will grow rapidly, such as 3D printing shops and 3D printed photo studios all over the streets and tourist attractions.

However, as the author mentions in the book, we must recognize that while creating 3D printing opportunities, it also brings many unprecedented challenges: talent training in the 3D printing industry, existing design software and 3D printing Mismatches, copyright and intellectual property disputes of 3D printed items, and quality and safety issues of 3D printing equipment and 3D printed products, as well as the threat to public safety and the environment caused by 3D printed products, and so on. These problems urgently require the joint efforts of 3D printing industry professionals, industrial economic researchers, legal workers, and public affairs managers.

4.3D printing will change the existing industrial structure and impact the Chinese economic model

There is no doubt that 3D printing will create new business models, change the existing industrial structure, and have a huge impact on the world economy. Recently, major developed countries have begun to make arrangements, successively introduced relevant policies and investment development plans, and vigorously develop the 3D printing industry, aiming to occupy the forefront of the new industrial revolution. On the one hand, US President Barack Obama mentioned 3D printing many times in the “State of the Union” and planned to establish a 3D printing national innovation center to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. manufacturing industry; In China, you can also see huge funding for 3D printing technology-related projects.

Frankly speaking, 3D printing technology will bring some direct negative effects to China’s industrial economy. First of all, as the author mentioned in the book, as labor costs in China’s manufacturing industry rise, global cloud manufacturing models based on 3D printing technology and Internet platforms will reflect the advantages of cheaper, faster and greener environmental protection, which will be extremely It may replace the existing Chinese manufacturing model. Secondly, the extensive application of 3D printing allows the entire product development process to be carried out within the enterprise, which will shorten the research and development cycle and protect the design scheme well. However, it is undoubtedly a heavy blow for Chinese small enterprises that rely heavily on imitation to survive and lack the power of original design. It is gratifying that in cities such as Beijing, Xi’an, Chengdu and Wuhan, China, the government has started to layout and plan for 3D printing-related industries, encouraging all aspects of equipment development, software design, material preparation and technical services. Develop the 3D printing industry. It is hoped that China can seize the opportunity of the transformation and reform of the manufacturing industry and become a world powerhouse in the 3D printing industry.

Overall, this new book by Professor Lipson and Ms. Cuman very timely and comprehensively summarizes and analyzes the main topics in the field of 3D printing, and depicts many very fascinating application prospects and industry opportunities, making us believe in 3D The printing era has arrived, and our lives, work, and thinking will change, and the world economic and industrial structure will also be affected by it. The authors and translators strive to make the language of the book easy to understand and the narrative simple, so for readers from all walks of life and different backgrounds, if you are interested in 3D printing, this book is a good choice.

Recommended order one

3D (Three Dimensions) printing is a transformative, digital additive manufacturing technology that manufactures three-dimensional objects by adding materials layer by layer. It integrates and penetrates information, materials, biology, control and other technologies. Lifestyle has a major impact.

This book is one of the rare masterpieces in the field of 3D printing. Its outstanding feature is that it does not stick to the detailed description of the 3D printing process technology, but introduces the concept of 3D printing to the reader. Popular language, from the perspectives of materials, manufacturing, life, health, education, law, and ethics, passionately and scientifically looking forward to the potential of 3D printing technology for future manufacturing, future social production models, and human lifestyles. Deep impact and change.

This book introduces the extraordinary capabilities of the complex shapes and internal structures of 3D printed manufacturing parts, and especially looks forward to the deep integration of 3D printing technology with multi-material composite and new material synthesis technologies. Components even have the ability to actively synthesize systems such as perception, execution, and feedback control, and are keenly aware that we are not far away in the era of “machine manufacturing machines.” The high degree of integration of manufacturing-material-control is impressive. It is an important development direction of 3D printing technology and a major feature of the book.

The author of this book is a senior expert in the field of 3D printing. He is passionate about the research of 3D printing technology and its development, yet objective and calm, and very forward-looking. The book also proposes the intellectual property rights that 3D printing technology may bring. And a series of social issues such as protection, responsibility of producers and consumers, protection of rights and interests, waste of resources, environmental pollution, drug and gun management, crime and law, law and ethics, etc. This is one of the valuable aspects of this book.
Wang Huaming
Professor of Yangtze River, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Director of Beijing Laser Direct Manufacturing Engineering Technology Research Center for Large Metal Key

Recommended order two

The apes differed because the ancients were able to make tools by hand. Today’s people are different from the ancients because they can use machines to make tools. Human beings have evolved so far. A brand-new symbol of civilization is the ability to use machines to make machines. In a narrow sense, the 3D printer that is currently endowed with unlimited imagination is such a machine capable of making machines.

Science fiction writer Cory Doctolo has said that science fiction writers are not good at predicting the future, and most people describe the present under the guise of the future. So what is the future of 3D printing technology?
“In the future (or in the future of the interstellar years), machines can make machines. 3D printers are the first wave of next-generation intelligent machines that can design, manufacture, repair, recycle, and even adjust and improve other machines, including They themselves. ”

The definitions of Hudi Lipson and Melba Cuman, authors of 3D Printing: From Imagination to Reality, correct the current media’s over-interpretation of 3D printing technology and bring the fantastic 3D printing to intelligent manufacturing . The authors interviewed front-line scientific and technological workers for 9 months, and inspected the 3D printing laboratory and product design and production process on site. They captured the logical trajectory of this intelligent manufacturing, that is, the three chapters of control: controlling the shape of the substance and controlling the Composition and control behavior, that is, the organic unity of the structure, material and activity of the object.

The limitations of manual control were very large, and then mechanical control appeared; thanks to the development of information technology, mechanical control was put on the wings of intelligence. As a result, people can gradually control the probe to reach the Moon and Mars hundreds of thousands of kilometers away, small brackets can be accurately placed at the end of the heart’s aorta, and laser printers can automatically red, yellow, blue, and red and blue colors. If you think of a 3D printer as a machine, what people want is to effectively control it and let it print any object we need. In this sense, 3D printing is a challenge and demonstration of the limits of human control. We, like the author, cannot predict when these three types of control will be truly and completely realized. However, it is foreseeable that the phased implementation of these three types of control capabilities will be enough to trigger great changes in manufacturing. At present, the basic chapter of the first chapter of 3D printing has brought an impact to the traditional mold industry. 3D printed teeth and hearing aids have occupied 80% of the market. Then it is also conceivable in the near future:

“3D printers can mix raw materials in new ways, and new materials will emerge. With mixed material printing, components with multiple structures will be manufactured and assembled at the same time. To a smaller extent, we will Embed and arrange multiple materials into complex microstructures with nanometer-level accuracy. ”

It’s hard to imagine how the manufacturing industry’s landscape will change dramatically when the control in the second chapter is realized. Let us use our imagination to look forward to the highest level of 3D printing control capabilities, such as printing sandwiches, printing body organs, smart robot……

“The so-called control behavior is to write the program into the material so that it has the functions we need. In other words, we no longer print passive parts and materials, but instead print a comprehensive package that can sense, react, calculate, and act. Active systems. ”

In the face of reality, we still have to withdraw our galloping imagination. Thinking about it, in fact, we don’t need to know whether the 3D printer is inkjet or laser. The 3D printing mode is stacked, added or additive. What really needs to be understood is people’s understanding of material structure, materials and activities.

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