This article will introduce in detail the definition and classification of the three major concepts of robots, robot education (including children’s robot education and adult robot education) and artificial intelligence education. It is a genuine bottom-level popular dry goods article.
Broadly defined: Robots include all machinery (such as robot dogs, robot cats, etc.) that simulate human behavior or thought and simulate other living things. In contemporary industry, robots refer to artificial machines and equipment that can automatically perform tasks to replace or assist humans in their work. Generally, they are electromechanical devices controlled by computer programs or electronic circuits. It is mainly composed of actuator, driving device, detection device, control system and complex machinery.
Narrow sense: The United Nations Standards Organization adopted the American Robotics Association’s definition of robots, which is a programmable multi-function manipulator (or a special system with computer changes and programmable actions for different tasks).
Robots are machines that perform tasks automatically, and they can be summarized in six words: perception, decision making, and execution.
Perception is a variety of sensors, such as auditory sensors, visual sensors, distance sensors, etc .;
Decision-making is a generalized artificial intelligence, like the human brain, including analysis, algorithms and control;
Execution is the hardware level. It involves physical form, mechanical structure, and how to move. For example, a robotic arm grasps an object, which is a kind of “executive”.
Robots have a distinguishing feature that involves technology in various disciplines. It is above all an interdisciplinary subject. It involves a lot of industrial fields, such as mechanical design, process processing, sensors, computers, artificial intelligence, unmanned driving, etc., can be said to be robots.
-Robot Education Concept-
1. Definition of children’s robot education
Robot education may be unfamiliar to people who don’t know it.
Robot education: refers to the construction, programming, and operation of robots, which stimulates students’ interest in learning and cultivates their comprehensive ability and good thinking habits. In this process, in addition to mastering the basic structure and construction process of the robot, students can also learn the fun of programming by controlling the robot. Therefore, robot education is truly entertaining.
Robot education is first and foremost an education, and robots are just a tool used for educational purposes. What teaching aids and which robot models to use is important to make good use of tools and discover the educational functions in them, so that children can learn really useful knowledge in robot courses, in order to achieve the purpose of robot education. Robot education can cultivate children’s ability in many aspects, such as the ability to define and solve problems; the ability to collect and apply information; the ability to work; the ability to collaborate; the ability to express; critical thinking; maintain curiosity and imagination. These are the capabilities needed for future competition.
Robot education generally goes through 4 stages: introduction, construction, programming, and control. Robot training courses for general training institutions are designed based on these four stages.
The introduction session stimulates children’s interest in learning through thematic exploration-style inspiration, background, and knowledge points.
The construction using component stacking will involve some engineering applications related to the principles of physics, space structure, mechanical transmission, electricity and magnetism, especially with the knowledge of power machinery as the core.
Programming mostly refers to graphical programming, which trains people’s logical thinking ability.
Control (debugging) refers to intelligent control, such as actuators, drive devices, detection devices, and control systems, etc., which can complete tasks through task topics.
In addition, many will have competition links, through actual combat, such as building a robot according to the competition design scenario, programming the robot tasks, learning how to solve practical problems, etc., to improve the children’s comprehensive ability.
2.Definition of adult robot education
Robotics teaching: Refers to robotics as a science. In all types of education at all levels, specialized courses are used to enable all students to master the basic knowledge and basic skills of robotics.
Its teaching goals are as follows:
Knowledge goal: To understand the basic knowledge of robot software engineering, hardware structure, functions and applications.
Skills goal: To be able to design and write robot programs, to assemble a variety of robots with practical functions, to use and maintain robots and smart home appliances, and to independently develop software to control robots.
Emotional goal: Cultivate interest in artificial intelligence technology and truly recognize the role of intelligent robots in social progress and economic development.
-Artificial Intelligence Concept-
Artificial Intelligence (Artificial Intelligence), the English abbreviation is AI. It is a new technological science that researches and develops theories, methods, technologies, and application systems for simulating, extending, and expanding human intelligence.
Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science that attempts to understand the essence of intelligence and produce a new type of intelligent machine that can respond in a similar way to human intelligence. Research in this area includes robotics, language recognition, image recognition, Natural language processing and expert systems. Since the birth of artificial intelligence, the theory and technology have become more and more mature, and the application field has also expanded. It can be imagined that the technology products brought by artificial intelligence in the future will be the “containers” of human intelligence. Artificial intelligence can simulate the information process of human consciousness and thinking.
Artificial intelligence is a very challenging science, and those who do it must know computer knowledge, psychology, and philosophy. Artificial intelligence is a very wide range of sciences. It consists of different fields, such as machine learning, computer vision, etc. In general, a major goal of artificial intelligence research is to make machines capable of performing tasks that normally require human intelligence. Complex work.
There are two main types of robots: service robots and industrial robots. Service robots can be divided into professional service robots and home service robots according to purpose.
Service robot: It has a wide range of applications, mainly engaged in maintenance, repair, transportation, cleaning, security, rescue, and monitoring. After several years of collation, the International Robot Federation gave a preliminary definition to service robots: Service robots are semi-autonomous or fully autonomous robots that can complete services that are beneficial to human health, but do not include production. device of. Here, we include other robots that are close to people’s lives.
The common service robots are:
Home robots, medical robots, educational robots, performance robots, competitive robots, transportation robots, security robots, maintenance robots, special robots, etc.
Among them, let’s focus on educational robots.
Educational robots (teaching aids): Robot-finished products, packages, or parts that are human-led and artificial intelligence-presented, with the goal of stimulating students ‘interest in learning and cultivating their comprehensive ability, can effectively improve students’ information technology capabilities and Competitiveness in the digital age has great educational value and good development prospects. Its types broadly include infant programming robots, building block assembly robots, metal assembly robots, and humanoid robots. In the narrow sense, it only refers to humanoid educational robots.
Educational robots have four characteristics of teaching applicability, expandability, friendliness and fun, which are very suitable for classroom teaching.
a. Toddler programming robot:
Children’s programming learning with no computer (no screen), zero foundation, low age, and programming materialization, with control board, card card, physical program block, magnetic programming block, color sensor recognition, task map, etc. as the main hardware Practical teaching aid sets, representative products such as Cheng Xiaoben, Baolian lamp, Little Ladybug, Quanzhi and other brands.
b. Building block assembly robot:
A set of robot education kits with several different shapes of scattered building blocks as the main hardware, plastic parts as the main material, and building blocks as the main teaching mode. Representative brands such as Lego, Capability Storm, Dr. Le, Kaizhi and other brands The product.
c. Metal assembly robot:
A set of robotic education products with scattered functional parts of different shapes as the main hardware, metal parts as the main material, and metal parts as the main teaching mode, are representative products of brands such as Makeblock and Meike.
d. humanoid robot:
The finished products of robot education with humanoid as the main feature and intelligent interaction as the main teaching mode are representative products of brands such as Youbixuan, Lezhi Robot, Kangli Youlan.
Industrial robot: refers to an opto-electromechanical integration of man-made operation, automatic control, repeatable programming, which can complete various tasks in three-dimensional space, consisting of an operating machine (mechanical body), a controller, a servo drive system, and a sensing device. Production equipment, especially suitable for multi-variety, variable batch flexible manufacturing systems.
Industrial robots can directly accept human instructions, run pre-programmed programs, or act in accordance with principles formulated by artificial intelligence technology. Such as: welding robots: Welding robots are the most common type of industrial robots. They are often used in the large-scale manufacturing of automobile manufacturing machinery lines, and welding of automobile bodies and other components using welding processes. Painting robots: Painting robots are also the most common type of industrial robot, and are often used to paint car bodies.
The common industrial robots are:
Assembly robot, welding robot, painting robot, sorting robot, handling robot, glue robot, packaging robot, grinding robot, processing robot, bending robot, etc.
3.Other special robots
Human body robots (semi-robots): Some humans will be transformed into robots through surgery, inputting their consciousness into computers, etc., for the purpose of maintaining law and order, military combat, and so on.
Combat robots: The countries that are at the forefront of combat robot research and development include the United States and Israel. If you do not include all types of unmanned aircraft in service around the world, the typical case is DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organisation) company Daksh, PackRot of iRobot, “Magic Claw” of Foster-Miller, Guardium of USV (Unmanned Security Vehicle) of Israel, SGR-A1 of Samsung of South Korea, etc. Currently, combat robots have been used in local wars such as Afghanistan, Palestine-Israel conflicts, and more common tasks include reconnaissance, demining, etc. This robot is often very flexible and can traverse complex terrain, such as BigDog and Atlas of the Boston Company Some types of robots are equipped with offensive weapons such as machine guns.
Research robot: Usually used to explore places that are difficult or impossible for humans to reach safely. There are types of underwater robots, extraterrestrial detection robots (Courage, Opportunity), cave / closet exploration robots, volcano research robots, and space exploration robots.
-Classification of Robot Education-
1. Classification from the perspective of teaching content at different ages:
(1) Building blocks/physical programming (3-6 years old)
The characteristics of young children’s development in the pre-school stage are mainly image thinking and action thinking. Most of the robot education courses at this stage take the form of plastic building blocks to learn basic physical and structural knowledge, and build different shapes to exercise their abilities and skills. Creativity, or use simple programming robots to learn simple programming logic and math.
(2) Combination of parts construction and programming (7-12 years old)
The primary form of robot education curriculum is to learn mechanical principles, engineering structures, electronic sensors, and program design by designing, building, programming, and running robots. Similarly, each lesson has a different building theme, mainly graphic programming. Teaching in a project-based way, with more teamwork, learning cross-disciplinary knowledge content by completing one task after another, improving the ability to solve problems, and training the thinking of science and engineering.
(3) Combination of parts construction, programming and free creation (13-15 years old)
The form of robot education curriculum in middle school is not much different from that in elementary school, but it is more integrated into the design of innovative projects, the increase in the proportion of competition projects, and the research and practice of open topics. Among them, the structural design becomes more difficult, and the programming language is gradually transformed from graphic to code language, such as C ++, Python, etc., which requires higher knowledge reserve and ability of learners.
2.Classification of robot education when entering public schools
(1) Robot society / club / study group
Part of the students who inhaled robotics through schools, children’s palaces, and lesser science stations and other groups formed intelligent robot learning groups / societies to conduct activities on a student system and participate in various competitions on behalf of the region. This form is the first, most effective way for robots to enter the field of view of elementary and middle school students.
(2) Comprehensive practical activity courses
The popularization of intelligent robot technology learning in comprehensive practical activity classes is very common in large and medium-sized cities, and the opening situation is relatively mature compared to less developed regions.
(3) Information technology education courses
The use of intelligent robots as one of the contents of information technology courses has entered the information technology education courses in elementary and middle schools. This form is in the formative period. The compilation of teaching materials and the regular opening of courses are beginning. On April 28, 2018, China’s first AI textbook for middle school students-“Basics of Artificial Intelligence (High School Edition)” was officially released. This will undoubtedly bring new vitality to the discipline of information technology. The current situation of information technology education focusing on software applications and despising programming development will improve in the future.
(4) Research course
Intelligent robot education has entered middle schools as a form of research courses. As research learning courses are getting more and more attention, the long-term and individual nature of robot education determines that if it is promoted through research learning forms, it will be more conducive to the innovation of students. to cultivate. However, due to the lack of class hours determined by the status of research courses and the organizational difficulty of oversized classes, this will affect the overall advancement of robot education.